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    Exclamation Mobile Technology Definitions

    Mobile Phone

    The mobile phone or mobile, also called a cellular phone, or cell phone is a long-range, portable electronic device used for mobile communication that uses a network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. In addition to the standard voice function of a telephone, current mobile phones can support many additional services such as SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for access to the Internet, and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video. Most current mobile phones connect to a cellular network of base stations (cell sites), which is in turn interconnected to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) (the exception is satellite phones).
    Firmware

    is somewhere between hardware and software. Like software, it is a computer program which is executed by a computer. But it is also an intimate and vital part of a piece of hardware, and has little meaning outside of that particular hardware.
    Firmware has traditionally been stored in ROM, however cost and performance requirements have driven component vendors to adopt various replacements, including non-volatile media such as EEPROM and Flash, or SRAM solutions, such as the firmware loaded by an operating system device driver.
    Flashing (cell phones)

    Flashing is the process of re-programming a mobile phones's firmware. Flashing should not be confused with unlocking, which is to remove restrictions put on a phone by that phone's wireless carrier. Flashing is primarily performed by authorized service centers on behalf of the manufacturers.
    Updating a phone's firmware can also cure programming glitches, as manufacturers competing to release their latest products may inadvertently release new handsets to the market with firmware issues. The resulting sales often outweigh the cost of servicing handsets returned to service centers for repair. Firmware updates are often released for a mobile phone after its initial release.
    Flashing may be performed on most makes or models of a mobile phone.

    Flashing is accomplished by connecting a phone to a computer using a data cable and copying new software from the computer onto the phone by using a dedicated flashing program. Such programs are unique to each manufacturer. For example Nokia uses a program called "Phoenix" while Sony Ericsson uses an advanced online program that uses a remote server called "Emma3".

    Other manufactures use other programs. Samsung use a program called "Optiflash", ASUS uses a program called "Download tool" and Motorola uses its own program called "Triage".

    Recently, some manufacturers, such as Nokia, have taken a different approach when it comes to flashing, with software allowing the end-user to perform a device upgrade, without the hassle of taking the handset to a service center. This service, however, is only available for newer Nokia units.

    The flash is comprised usually of several parts. The signaling part of the software, the content part and the Language pack.

    The signaling part of the software contains all of the instructions to make the base band part of the phone work. This is all the computer circuitry within the phone akin to a small dedicated computer. The content part contains all of the ring tones and logos particular to a service provider. The language pack will contain all of the menus and words for the country and sometimes surrounding regions for the region in which the handset is sold. Of course by flashing this can all be changed, making it possible for an European variant of a handset to be converted to an Asian one just by flashing the firmware.

    A typical flash pack can consist of a file otherwise known as a script from several megabytes up to 100 Megabytes. Symbian-based phones often have a higher size file as compared to handsets based on their own operating system custom made for that handset. For example a Sony Ericsson P910 flash file would be approximately 70 Megabytes and would take about 20 minutes to download into a handset during the flashing procedure.

    There are many aftermarket programs that are available freely on the Internet to achieve the same result. However, they are unreliable, may contain viruses and will void any manufacturers warranty as the result of third-party modification.

    Most of the official flashing programs use security devices called dongles which prevent the software from working properly unless they are present. Such programs, however, can be cracked to allow the program to work properly without the dongle. An exception to this rule is Sony Ericsson's advanced online flashing program called "Emma3".
    Unlocking ( SIM lock )

    A 'SIM Lock' or Network Lock, not to be confused with PIN or PUK code, is a capability built-in to GSM phones by mobile phone manufacturers. Network providers use this capability to restrict the use of these phones to specific countries and network providers. Currently, phones can be locked to accept only SIM cards from one or more of the following:
    Countries (the phone will work in one country, but not another)
    Network/Service providers (e.g. T-Mobile, Movistar, Vodafone etc)
    SIM types (i.e. only specific SIM cards can be used with the phone).

    In some countries, most mobile phones are shipped with country and/or network provider locks. In addition, these locked phones tend to have firmware installed on them which is specific to the network provider. For example, if in Australia for example you have a Vodafone or Telstra BRANDED phone, it displays the relevant logo and may only support features provided by that network (ie Vodafone! Live). This firmware is installed by the service provider and is separate from the locking mechanism. You can unlock most mobile phones to work with any GSM, such as 02 or Orange (in the UK) but the phone may still display the original branding and may not support features of your new carrier. Most Phones can be unbranded by uploading a different firmware version, a procedure recommended for advanced users only.

    Types of SIM Locks

    The country lock only allows the use of the phone with SIM cards that originated in a specific country or group of countries.

    A network lock only allows the use of the phone with SIM cards that belong to a specific network.

    The most common lock is the service provider lock (SP-lock). Many different service providers may use the same physical network (e.g. MVNOs). An SP-lock ensures that the handset is only used with SIM cards for the same service provider that marketed the handset. Service providers sometimes substantially subsidize handsets, and locking the handset improves the odds that its use will economically benefit the service provider.

    With this type of lock it's often possible to buy cheap pay-as-you-go (or prepaid) handsets, and replace the SIM card with your current subscription/Contract/On-Account SIM card from the same service provider. In this way you can buy a cheap subsidized handset, while retaining your existing subscription.

    However, some service providers use a different service provider code for their pay-as-you-go handsets, so it won't recognize a subscription SIM card as being from the same service provider.

    The most restrictive type of lock which can be used is the full SIM card lock, which means that a phone will only work with one SIM card. If that SIM card malfunctions or is damaged, the phone will no longer work and must be serviced.

    Some carriers may have separate locks for the different countries they operate in, so that a phone purchased in America may not work with a carrier's British counterpart or vice-versa.

    Laws On SIM/Network Locking

    In many countries, locking a handset is legal and may even be required. Some providers never unlock handsets, even after a customer has fulfilled their service contract.[citation needed]

    On the other hand, SIM locking has countercompetitive effects on the cellphone service market. In some countries, this is considered sufficiently undesirable to warrant regulation or prohibition of the practice. In United Kingdom, cellphone network providers are required to unlock phones on demand, but are permitted to charge a fee for releasing the unlock code. This has prompted smaller businesses to offer cut price unlocking on the UK's High Streets, marketplaces and car boot sales.

    In Belgium, sale of locked phones is prohibited by law. All phones as a result are sold unlocked even if they feature a network's logo on their case. In The Netherlands and Spain, providers must provide unlocking codes, but can charge a fee for this during the first 12 months after purchase; the unlocking code must be provided at no cost after this period of time.[1] Hong Kong carriers are allowed to sell locked mobile phones. The Hong Kong Telecommunications Authority hasn't revised their 1997 ruling which allowed SIM locking.[1] In Finland carriers are not allowed to sell locked mobile phones, except for 3G handsets. In the United States, the two national GSM carriers, T-Mobile [2] and AT&T Mobility[citations needed] will unlock your handset if you have an active account in good standing for at least 90 days. This is a change in practice, as before merging with Cingular, AT&T Wireless was known for never unlocking handsets.

    In Australia, carriers can choose whether to SIM/Network Lock handsets or not and usually tend to only SIM/Network lock prepaid handsets. This is purely to ensure that the subsidy provided on that handset actually benefits the Network to which it is locked. This also prevents a consumer buying a subsidized handset and then selling it as SIM free.

    In Australia all Service Providers/Networks/Carriers charge a fee for the unlock code/instructions, and it can vary from 27.95 AUD (Telstra, after 6 months of ownership) to a whopping 199 AUD (3) provided the handset is not marked as "permanently locked". The (3) Three Network labels a handset permanently locked because they (3) have not bought the unlock codes from the manufacturer (ex: Nokia 6280).

    The Vodafone network will unlock all of its handsets (some handsets free of charge) via http://www.vodafone.com.au/unlock. Usually there will be a sticker on the box of the phone (sometimes this is on the plastic packaging surrounding the phone and most people discard this without notice) which indicates whether the phone is soft or hard locked. Fees will apply for hard locked phones if done online within the first six months of purchase this will incur a fee of $75 ($100 via customer care) after six months of ownership fee falls to $25 online ($50 via customer care). Soft locked phones must still be unlocked via the website or Customer Care but codes are free of charge.

    Usually prepaid handsets in Australia are less desirable, and the phone would normally be discarded should the consumer forget to keep it active, wants a better handset, or moves to a different carrier. Some of the carriers allow you to use top up credit instead of a cash/credit card payment to cover the unlocking charge. Most planned (billed) phones are sim lock free in Australia.

    Unlocking technology

    A handset can be unlocked by entering a special code, or in some cases, over-the-air by the carrier.

    Typically, a locked phone will display a message if a restricted SIM is used, requesting the unlock code.

    For example, on the Sony Ericsson T610 mobile phone, "Insert correct SIM card" will appear on the phone's display if the wrong SIM is used. Once a valid unlocking code is entered, the phone will display "Network unlocked". In some cases, the phone will simply display a message explaining that it is locked. This is especially the case with handsets provided by AT&T Mobility.

    The code required to remove all SIM locks from a phone is called the master code or network code key.

    The unlock code is verified by the phone itself, and is either stored in a database or calculated using an obscure mathematical formula by the provider.

    The algorithms used in earlier Nokia brand phones (based on IMEI and MCC code) have been reverse engineered, stolen or leaked, resulting in many people offering Nokia unlock codes for free or for a fee. Newer Nokia phones have more robust encoding algorithms and permit fewer attempts at unlocking and are not unlockable by these free unlocking programs.

    Many other manufacturers have taken a more cautious approach, and embed a random number in the handset's firmware that is only retained by the network on whose behalf the lock was applied. Such phones can often still be unlocked, but need to be connected to special test equipment that will rewrite that part of its firmware where the lock status is kept.

    Most phones have security measures built in its software that prevent users from entering the unlock code too many times, usually four. After that the phone becomes "hard-locked" and special unlocking equipment has to be used in order to unlock it.

    Handset manufacturers have economic incentives both to strengthen simlock security (which placates network providers and enables exclusivity deals), but also to weaken it (broadening a handset's appeal to customers who are not interested in the service provider that offers it). Also, making it too difficult to unlock a handset makes it less appealing to network service providers that have a legal obligation to provide unlock codes for every handset they've ever sold.

    The main reason to unlock a phone is to be able to use it with a different SIM card. For example, when traveling abroad it's usually cheaper to temporarily use a foreign network, for example with a prepaid subscription. Contrary to some beliefs, an unlocked phone can't access extra cell phone towers or give free phone service. All it can do is accept other SIMs.

    In some cases, a simlocked handset is sold at a substantially lower price than an unlocked one, because the service provider expects income through its service. A consumer may choose to unlock the phone and continue using his previous provider. Therefore, simlocks are usually employed on cheaper (pay-as-you-go) handsets, while discounts on more expensive handsets require a subscription that provides guaranteed cash flow.

    A practice known as "box breaking" is common in the UK and some other markets. This involves purchasing (usually) pay as you go handsets from retail stores, unlocking the phones, and then selling them (often abroad) for a higher price than the subsidised retail price. The SIM card that came with the subsidized handset is then either thrown away or sold or used elsewhere. This practice is entirely legal in the UK, and provides a de-facto limit to the extent to which networks are willing to subsidize pay as you go handsets. In recent times network operators have been insisting that new customers purchase substantial amounts of airtime at the same time as they buy a new handset, in order that the total price they pay comes close to the true value of the handset.

    Unlocking via computer

    One of the most popular ways phones are unlocked is using the USB, Serial or Parallel port of a computer using software usually written specifically for the model of phone being unlocked. In some cases, special "unlocking clips" or "unlocking boxes" are used which re-program the software that controls the phone, removing the SIM lock. However, such clips are usually very expensive.

    Unlocking via code

    Some companies have begun to offer an e-mail unlocking service. This service requires that the individual who wishes to unlock their phone emails his or hers IMEI number (you can find this by pressing *#06# on your phone) to the company. The company will then process this IMEI number and email back an unlock code and instructions. Input the unlock code and your phone is unlocked. These email services are usually the most efficient as it is the same method most retail stores will offer.How to unlock your phone with unlock code ( sony ericsson ):

    1. For the unlocking of a locked Sony Ericsson no sim card is required.
    2. Turn on the handset. Display will indicate “Insert SIM.”
    3. Press the left Arrow (<) button.
    4. Press the star (*) button twice.
    5. Press the left Arrow (<) button again.
    6. You will briefly see one of the following messages listed on devices display: “Personalized with MNC2” or “Personalized with MNC3”.
    7. Wait approximately three seconds.
    8. The display will indicate “Network” and a picture of a closed lock.
    9. Press Select.
    10. The display will indicate “Unlock (Net) 5” and “NCK:”
    11. Enter the 16 digit NLCK4U code (unlock code we provided you) and press okay.
    12. The handset will display “Network unlocked” and the display “Insert SIM” appears.
    13. The handset is successfully unlocked.

    Unlocking via mail

    Some companies have begun to offer a "mail-in" service. These services allow the user to send their phone in and have it sent back in an unlocked condition. The benefit to this is that the user doesn't have to become a "cell-phone technician" and also comes with the assurance of a money back guarantee.


    Networks

    Types of networks and where they are used

    Digital networks

    GSM-850 is used in the United States, Canada, and many other countries in the Americas. GSM-850 is also sometimes called GSM-800 because this frequency range was known as the "800MHz Band", when it was first allocated for AMPS usage in the United States in 1983.
    GSM 900 (transmitting on the 900 MHz frequency band) is Europe's main digital network. It's also used in the Asia-Pacific region.
    GSM 1800 (transmitting on the 1800 MHz frequency band) is also used in Europe and Asia, but has not been as widely adopted as GSM 900.
    GSM 1900 (transmitting on the 1900 MHz frequency band) is the GSM system used mainly in the Americas and Canada.
    TDMA is a digital standard used primarily in the US, but also in Latin America, New Zealand, parts of Russia and the Asia-Pacific region.
    CDMA is the most common and most recent digital cellular technology in North America.
    Analogue networks

    AMPS is used mainly in the US. It's also used in Latin America, Australia, New Zealand, parts of Russia and the Asia-Pacific region.
    ETACS is used in Europe and the Asia-Pacific region.
    NMT is used in Scandinavia and some European countries, as well as parts of Russia, the Middle East and Asia.
    Network structure



    GSM, TDMA, CDMA, Cellular, PDC, GPRS, WCDMA, PCS, 2G, 3G, 4G, ITU, EDGE, HSPDA, UMTS, HSCSD, WLAN / Wi-Fi, Bluetooth.

    GSM

    Short for Global System for Mobile Communications, one of the leading digital cellular systems. GSM uses narrowband TDMA, which allows eight simultaneous calls on the same radio frequency.
    GSM was first introduced in 1991. By the end of 1997, the GSM service was available in more than 100 countries. It has become the de facto standard in Europe and Asia.
    Considered the most advanced digital cellular technology, GSM networks are leaders in many typically "digital" services including Short Message Service (SMS), Over the air (OTA) configuration and GSM positioning. Thanks to its technology and presence both in the Americas and the rest of the world, GSM is well positioned for global roaming. Many new GSM phones are called "global phones", because they can be used in virtually any country. The SIM card ("Subscriber Identification Module") is also a unique and essential component of GSM phones.
    Technically, GSM was based on the TDMA protocol.
    TDMA

    Short for Time Division Multiple Access, TDMA is a technology for delivering digital wireless service using time-division multiplexing (TDM). It works by dividing a radio frequency into time slots, then allocating slots to multiple calls. In this way, a single frequency can support multiple, simultaneous data channels. TDMA is used by the GSM digital cellular system.
    One of the oldest digital cellular technologies, TDMA is used mostly in North America. It is considered the least advanced digital technology, partly because of its lack of flexibility compared with other digital cellular technologies.
    CDMA

    Short for Code-Division Multiple Access, this is a digital cellular technology that uses spread-spectrum techniques. Unlike competing systems that use TDMA, such as GSM, CDMA does not assign a specific frequency to each user. Instead, every channel uses the full available spectrum.
    Individual conversations are encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence. What differentiates CDMA from other phone technologies is that it carries many conversations by sending all communications in groups of bits mixed together, and tagging each group belonging to a specific communication with a different code. Each communication can therefore be reassembled in the correct order at the other end, using the unique codes attached to particular groups of bits.
    Cellular

    Refers to communications systems, especially the Advance Mobile Phone Service (AMPS), that divide a geographic region into sections called cells. The purpose of this division is to make the most efficient use of a limited number of transmission frequencies. Each connection, or conversation, requires its own dedicated frequency, and the total number of available frequencies is about 1,000.
    To support more than 1,000 simultaneous conversations, cellular systems allocate a set number of frequencies to each cell. Two cells can use the same frequency for different conversations, provided the cells are not adjacent.
    PDC

    Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) is one of the world's three main digital wireless standards, ranking alongside GSM and TDMA. Although all users are currently in Japan, operators in other regions of the world are actively considering PDC. Although PDC is currently only used in Japan, it is the world's second-largest digital standard, with over 48 million subscribers by July 2000. As with GSM, PDC is based on TDMA technology.
    GPRS

    GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a step between GSM and 3G cellular networks. GPRS offers faster data transmission (9.6Kbits to 115Kbits) via a GSM network. This new technology enables users to make telephone calls and transmit data at the same time. (For example, if you have a GPRS mobile phone, you will be able to make calls and receive email messages simultaneously.) The main benefits of GPRS are that it reserves radio resources only when there is data to send, and reduces reliance on traditional circuit-switched network elements.
    WCDMA

    Short for wideband CDMA, this is a high-speed 3G mobile wireless technology that can offer higher data speeds than CDMA. WCDMA can reach speeds of up to 2 Mbps for voice, video, data and image transmission. WCDMA was adopted as a standard by the ITU under the name "IMT-2000 direct spread."
    PCS

    Short for Personal Communications Service, PCS is the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) term used to describe a set of digital cellular technologies being deployed in the U.S. PCS works over CDMA (also called IS-95), GSM and North American TDMA (also called IS-136) air interfaces. Three of the most important distinguishing features of PCS systems are:

    * They are completely digital.
    * They operate in the 1900 MHz frequency range.
    * They can be used internationally. PCS is a second-generation mobile communications technology.
    2G

    2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology.

    The main differentiator to previous mobile telephone systems, retrospectively dubbed 1G, is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks are digital. Both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system.

    2G technologies can be divided into TDMA-based and CDMA-based standards depending on the type of multiplexing used. The main 2G standards are:
    - GSM (TDMA-based), originally from Europe but used worldwide (Time Division Multiple Access)
    - iDEN (TDMA-based), proprietary network used by Nextel in the United States and Telus Mobility in Canada
    - IS-136 aka D-AMPS, (TDMA-based, commonly referred as simply TDMA in the US), used in the Americas
    - IS-95 aka cdmaOne, (CDMA-based, commonly referred as simply CDMA in the US), used in the Americas and parts of Asia
    - PDC (TDMA-based), used exclusively in Japan

    2G services are frequently referred as Personal Communications Service, or PCS, in the United States.

    2.5G services enable high-speed data transfer over upgraded existing 2G networks. Beyond 2G, there's 3G, with higher data speeds, and 4G, with even higher data speeds, to enable new services for subscribers, such as picture messaging and video telephony.
    3G

    3G is an ITU specification for the third generation (analogue cellular was the first generation, digital PCS the second) of mobile communications technology. 3G promises increased bandwidth of up to 384 Kbps when a device is stationary or moving at pedestrian speed, 128 Kbps in a car and 2 Mbps in fixed applications. 3G will work over wireless air interfaces such as GSM, TDMA and CDMA. The new EDGE air interface has been developed specifically to meet the bandwidth needs of 3G.
    4G

    4G (also known as beyond 3G), an acronym for Fourth-Generation Communications System, is a term used to describe the next step in wireless communications. A 4G system will be able to provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be given to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at higher data rates than previous generations. There is no formal definition for what 4G is; however, there are certain objectives that are projected for 4G.

    These objectives include: that 4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system. This will be achieved after wired and wireless technologies converge and will be capable of providing 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s speeds both indoors and outdoors, with premium quality and high security. 4G will offer all types of services at an affordable cost.

    4G is being developed to accommodate the quality of service (QoS) and rate requirements set by forthcoming applications like wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service, video chat, mobile TV, High definition TV content, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), minimal service like voice and data, and other streaming services for "anytime-anywhere". The 4G working group has defined the following as objectives of the 4G wireless communication standard:

    - A spectrally efficient system (in bits/s/Hz and bit/s/Hz/site),
    - High network capacity: more simultaneous users per cell,
    - A nominal data rate of 100 Mbit/s while the client physically moves at high speeds relative to the station, and 1 Gbit/s while client and station are in relatively fixed positions as defined by the ITU-R,
    - A data rate of at least 100 Mbit/s between any two points in the world,
    - Smooth handoff across heterogeneous networks,
    - Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks,
    - High quality of service for next generation multimedia support (real time audio, high speed data, HDTV video content, mobile TV, etc)
    - Interoperability with existing wireless standards, and
    - An all IP, packet switched network.

    In summary, the 4G system should dynamically share and utilise network resources to meet the minimal requirements of all the 4G enabled users.
    ITU

    Short for International Telecommunication Union. The ITU is an intergovernmental organisation through which public and private organisations develop telecommunications. The ITU was founded in 1865 and became a United Nations agency in 1947. It is responsible for adopting international treaties, regulations and standards governing telecommunications. The standardisation functions were formerly performed by a group within the ITU called the CCITT, but since a 1992 reorganisation the CCITT no longer exists as a separate body.
    EDGE

    Enhanced data for global evolution (EDGE) is a high-speed mobile data standard, intended to enable second-generation global system for mobile communication (GSM) and time division multiple access (TDMA) networks to transmit data at up to 384 kilobits per second (Kbps). As it was initially developed just for GSM systems, it has also been called GSM384. Ericsson intended the technology for those network operators who failed to win spectrum auctions for third-generation networks to allow high-speed data transmission.
    EDGE provides speed enhancements by changing the type of modulation used and making a better use of the carrier currently used, for example the 200kHz carrier in GSM systems. EDGE also provides an evolutionary path to third-generation IMT-2000-compliant systems, such as universal mobile telephone systems (UMTS), by implementing some of the changes expected in the later implementation in third-generation systems.
    HSPDA

    Short for High-Speed Downlink Packet Access
    HSDPA's incremental UMTS network upgrade aims to increase user peak data rates and quality-of-service and improve spectral efficiency - much like EDGE and 1XRTT have done for 2G. Although UMTS enables streaming video, broadband Internet access and video conferencing, HSDPA offers peak downlink data rates of up to 14 Mbps - dramatically more than the 384 kbps that is typical of today's UMTS and the highest data rate of any available mobile WAN technology.
    HSPDA works by moving important processing functions closer to the air interface. Although current UMTS networks perform network scheduling and retransmission in the radio network controller, HSDPA moves these functions to the base station (called Node B in UMTS systems), allowing scheduling priority to take account of channel quality and terminal capabilities. Retransmission also benefits from hybrid automatic retransmission request in which retransmissions are combined with prior signal transmissions to improve overall reception. HSDPA adds a channel-sharing mechanism that allows several users to share the high-speed air interface channel and other technological advances such as adaptive modulation and coding, quadrature amplitude modulation and channel quality feedback. These enhancements allow HSDPA to roughly double the total throughput capacity of a network.
    UMTS

    UMTS offers teleservices (like speech or SMS) and bearer services, which provide the capability for information transfer between access points. It is possible to negotiate and renegotiate the characteristics of a bearer service at session or connection establishment and during ongoing session or connection. Both connection oriented and connectionless services are offered for Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint communication.
    Bearer services have different QoS parameters for maximum transfer delay, delay variation and bit error rate. Offered data rate targets are:
    # 144 kbits/s satellite and rural outdoor
    # 384 kbits/s urban outdoor
    # 2048 kbits/s indoor and low range outdoor
    UMTS network services have different QoS classes for four types of traffic:
    # Conversational class (voice, video telephony, video gaming)
    # Streaming class (multimedia, video on demand, webcast)
    # Interactive class (web browsing, network gaming, database access)
    # Background class (email, SMS, downloading)
    QoS = Quality of Service
    HSCSD

    ( High Speed Circuit Switched Data ) A circuit-linked technology for higher transmission speeds-up to 57 kilobits per second , primarily in GSM systems.
    WLAN / Wi-Fi

    A WLAN or wireless LAN is a wireless local area network that uses radio waves as its carrier. Wi-Fi, or wifi, is a trademark for sets of product compatibility standards based on the IEEE 802.11 specifications for WLANs.
    Bluetooth



    Bluetooth Basics

    Bluetooth wireless technology is a short-range communications technology intended to replace the cables connecting portable and/or fixed devices while maintaining high levels of security. The key features of Bluetooth technology are robustness, low power, and low cost. The Bluetooth specification defines a uniform structure for a wide range of devices to connect and communicate with each other.
    Bluetooth technology has achieved global acceptance such that any Bluetooth enabled device, almost everywhere in the world, can connect to other Bluetooth enabled devices in proximity. Bluetooth enabled electronic devices connect and communicate wirelessly through short-range, ad hoc networks known as piconets. Each device can simultaneously communicate with up to seven other devices within a single piconet. Each device can also belong to several piconets simultaneously. Piconets are established dynamically and automatically as Bluetooth enabled devices enter and leave radio proximity.
    A fundamental Bluetooth wireless technology strength is the ability to simultaneously handle both data and voice transmissions. This enables users to enjoy variety of innovative solutions such as a hands-free headset for voice calls, printing and fax capabilities, and synchronizing PDA, laptop, and mobile phone applications to name a few.

    Core Specification Versions

    Version 2.0 + Enhanced Data Rate (EDR), adopted November, 2004
    Version 1.2, adopted November, 2003

    Specification Make-Up

    Unlike many other wireless standards, the Bluetooth wireless specification gives product developers both link layer and application layer definitions, which supports data and voice applications

    Spectrum

    Bluetooth technology operates in the unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, using a spread spectrum, frequency hopping, full-duplex signal at a nominal rate of 1600 hops/sec. The 2.4 GHz ISM band is available and unlicensed in most countries

    Interference

    Bluetooth technology’s adaptive frequency hopping (AFH) capability was designed to reduce interference between wireless technologies sharing the 2.4 GHz spectrum. AFH works within the spectrum to take advantage of the available frequency. This is done by detecting other devices in the spectrum and avoiding the frequencies they are using. This adaptive hopping allows for more efficient transmission within the spectrum, providing users with greater performance even if using other technologies along with Bluetooth technology. The signal hops among 79 frequencies at 1 MHz intervals to give a high degree of interference immunity

    Range

    The operating range depends on the device class:
    Class 3 radios – have a range of up to 1 meter or 3 feet
    Class 2 radios – most commonly found in mobile devices – have a range of 10 meters or 30 feet
    Class 1 radios – used primarily in industrial use cases – have a range of 100 meters or 300 feet

    Power

    The most commonly used radio is Class 2 and uses 2.5 mW of power. Bluetooth technology is designed to have very low power consumption. This is reinforced in the specification by allowing radios to be powered down when inactive

    Data Rate

    1 Mbps for Version 1.2; Up to 3 Mbps supported for Version 2.0 + EDR

    Bluetooth Technology Benefits

    Why Choose Bluetooth wireless technology?

    Bluetooth wireless technology is the simple choice for convenient, wire-free, short-range communication between devices. It is a globally available standard that wirelessly connects mobile phones, portable computers, cars, stereo headsets, MP3 players, and more. Thanks to the unique concept of “profiles,” Bluetooth enabled products do not need to install driver software. The technology is now available in its fourth version of the specification and continues to develop, building on its inherent strengths — small-form factor radio, low power, low cost, built-in security, robustness, ease-of-use, and ad hoc networking abilities. Bluetooth wireless technology is the leading and only proven short-range wireless technology on the market today shipping over five million units every week with an installed base of over 500 million units at the end of 2005.

    Globally Available

    The Bluetooth wireless technology specification is available free-of-charge to our member companies around the globe. Manufacturers from many industries are busy implementing the technology in their products to reduce the clutter of wires, make seamless connections, stream stereo audio, transfer data or carry voice communications. Bluetooth technology operates in the 2.4 GHz, one of the unlicensed industrial, scientific, medical (ISM) radio bands. As such, there is no cost for the use of Bluetooth technology. While you must subscribe to a cellular provider to use GSM or CDMA, with Bluetooth technology there is no cost associated with the use beyond the cost of your device.

    Range of Devices

    Bluetooth technology is available in an unprecedented range of applications from mobile phones to automobiles to medical devices for use by consumers, industrial markets, enterprises, and more. The low power consumption, small size and low cost of the chipset solution enables Bluetooth technology to be used in the tiniest of devices. Have a look at the wide range products made available by our members in the Bluetooth product directory and the component product listing.

    Ease of Use

    Bluetooth technology is an ad hoc technology that requires no fixed infrastructure and is simple to install and set up. You don’t need wires to get connected. The process for a new user is easy – you get a Bluetooth branded product, check the profiles available and connect it to another Bluetooth device with the same profiles. The subsequent PIN code process is as easy as when you identify yourself at the ATM machine. When out-and-about, you carry your personal area network (PAN) with you and can even connect to others.

    Globally Accepted Specification

    Bluetooth wireless technology is the most widely supported, versatile, and secure wireless standard on the market today. The globally available qualification program tests member products as to their accordance with the standard. Since the first release of the Bluetooth specification in 1999, over 4000 companies have become members in the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). Meanwhile, the number of Bluetooth products on the market is multiplying rapidly. Volumes have doubled for the fourth consecutive year and are likely to reach an installed base of 500 million units by the close of 2005.

    Secure Connections

    From the start, Bluetooth technology was designed with security needs in mind. Since it is globally available in the open 2.4 GHz ISM band, robustness was built in from the beginning. With adaptive frequency hopping (AFH), the signal “hops” and thus limits interference from other signals. Further, Bluetooth technology has built-in security such as 128bit encryption and PIN code authentication. When Bluetooth products identify themselves, they use the PIN code the first time they connect. Once connected, always securely connected.

    How Bluetooth Technology Works

    Bluetooth wireless technology is a short-range communications system intended to replace the cables connecting portable and/or fixed electronic devices. The key features of Bluetooth wireless technology are robustness, low power, and low cost. Many features of the core specification are optional, allowing product differentiation.
    The Bluetooth core system consists of an RF transceiver, baseband, and protocol stack. The system offers services that enable the connection of devices and the exchange of a variety of data classes between these devices.

    Overview of Operation

    The Bluetooth RF (physical layer) operates in the unlicensed ISM band at 2.4GHz. The system employs a frequency hop transceiver to combat interference and fading, and provides many FHSS carriers. RF operation uses a shaped, binary frequency modulation to minimize transceiver complexity. The symbol
    rate is 1 Megasymbol per second (Msps) supporting the bit rate of 1 Megabit per second (Mbps) or, with Enhanced Data Rate, a gross air bit rate of 2 or 3Mb/s. These modes are known as Basic Rate and Enhanced Data Rate respectively.
    During typical operation, a physical radio channel is shared by a group of devices that are synchronized to a common clock and frequency hopping pattern. One device provides the synchronization reference and is known as the master. All other devices are known as slaves. A group of devices synchronized in this fashion form a piconet. This is the fundamental form of communication for Bluetooth wireless technology.
    Devices in a piconet use a specific frequency hopping pattern which is algorithmically determined by certain fields in the Bluetooth specification address and clock of the master. The basic hopping pattern is a pseudo-random ordering of the 79 frequencies in the ISM band. The hopping pattern may be adapted to exclude a portion of the frequencies that are used by interfering devices. The adaptive hopping technique improves Bluetooth technology co-existence with static (non-hopping) ISM systems when these are co-located.
    The physical channel is sub-divided into time units known as slots. Data is transmitted between Bluetooth enabled devices in packets that are positioned in these slots. When circumstances permit, a number of consecutive slots may be allocated to a single packet. Frequency hopping takes place between the transmission or reception of packets. Bluetooth technology provides the effect of full duplex transmission through the use of a time-division duplex (TDD) scheme.
    Above the physical channel there is a layering of links and channels and associated control protocols. The hierarchy of channels and links from the physical channel upwards is physical channel, physical link, logical transport, logical link and L2CAP channel.
    Within a physical channel, a physical link is formed between any two devices that transmit packets in either direction between them. In a piconet physical channel there are restrictions on which devices may form a physical link. There is a physical link between each slave and the master. Physical links are not formed directly between the slaves in a piconet.
    The physical link is used as a transport for one or more logical links that support unicast synchronous, asynchronous and isochronous traffic, and broadcast traffic. Traffic on logical links is multiplexed onto the physical link by occupying slots assigned by a scheduling function in the resource manager.
    A control protocol for the baseband and physical layers is carried over logical links in addition to user data. This is the link manager protocol (LMP). Devices that are active in a piconet have a default asynchronous connection-oriented logical transport that is used to transport the LMP protocol signaling. For historical reasons this is known as the ACL logical transport. The default ACL logical transport is the one that is created whenever a device joins a piconet. Additional logical transports may be created to transport synchronous data streams when this is required.
    The link manager function uses LMP to control the operation of devices in the piconet and provide services to manage the lower architectural layers (radio layer and baseband layer). The LMP protocol is only carried on the default ACL logical transport and the default broadcast logical transport.
    Above the baseband layer the L2CAP layer provides a channel-based abstraction to applications and services. It carries out segmentation and reassembly of application data and multiplexing and de-multiplexing of multiple channels over a shared logical link. L2CAP has a protocol control channel that is carried over the default ACL logical transport. Application data submitted to the L2CAP protocol may be carried on any logical link that supports the L2CAP protocol.

    Security

    Today's wireless world means that data is being sent, among us, invisibly from device to device, country to country, person to person. This data, in the form of e-mails, photos, contacts and addresses are precious and private to each of us. This private information, no longer making its way along wires in plain sight, needs to be sent securely to its intended recipient without interception. Wireless standards the world over are evolving and have various formats for dealing with the security issues of its users. Bluetooth wireless technology is no exception.
    Bluetooth wireless technology has, from its inception, put great emphasis on wireless security so that users of this global standard can feel secure while making their connections. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), made up of over 4000 member manufacturers, has a Bluetooth security experts group made up of engineers from its member companies who provide critical security information and feedback that is taken into account as the Bluetooth wireless specification evolves..
    Product developers that use Bluetooth wireless technology in their products have several options for implementing security. There are three modes of security for Bluetooth access between two devices..
    Security Mode 1: non-secure
    Security Mode 2: service level enforced security
    Security Mode 3: link level enforced security.
    The manufacturer of each product determines these security modes. Devices and services also have different security levels. For devices, there are two levels: "trusted device" and "untrusted device." A trusted device, having been paired with one's other device, has unrestricted access to all services.With regard to services, three security levels are defined: services that require authorization and authentication, services that require authentication only and services that are open to all devices..
    Lately, confusion and misinformation surrounding security and Bluetooth wireless technology has increased. The current security issues typically involve mobile phones. How these issues apply to other classes of devices is important and is often not addressed. The encryption algorithm in the Bluetooth specifications is secure. This includes devices such as mice and keyboards connecting to a PC, a mobile phone synchronizing with a PC, and a PDA using a mobile phone as a modem to name just a few of the many use cases..
    Cases where data has been compromised on mobile phones are the result of implementation issues on that platform. The Bluetooth SIG diligently works with our members to investigate any issues that are reported to understand the root cause of the issue. If it is a specification issue, we work with the membership to get patches out and ensure future devices don't suffer from the same vulnerability. This is an on-going process. The recently reported issues of advanced "hackers" gaining access to information stored on select mobile phones using Bluetooth functionality are due to incorrect implementation. The names bluesnarfing and bluebugging have been given to these methods of illegal and improper access to information. The questions and answers below provide users with more information about these current issues and will address their concerns for dealing with these security risks..

    What is bluejacking?

    Bluejacking allows phone users to send business cards anonymously using Bluetooth wireless technology. Bluejacking does NOT involve the removal or alteration of any data from the device. These business cards often have a clever or flirtatious message rather than the typical name and phone number. Bluejackers often look for the receiving phone to ping or the user to react. They then send another, more personal message to that device. Once again, in order to carry out a bluejacking, the sending and receiving devices must be within 10 meters of one another. Phone owners who receive bluejack messages should refuse to add the contacts to their address book. Devices that are set in non-discoverable mode are not susceptible to bluejacking.

    What is bluebugging?

    Bluebugging allows skilled individuals to access the mobile phone commands using Bluetooth wireless technology without notifying or alerting the phone’s user. This vulnerability allows the hacker to initiate phone calls, send and receive text messages, read and write phonebook contacts, eavesdrop on phone conversations, and connect to the Internet. As with all the attacks, without specialized equipment, the hacker must be within a 10 meter range of the phone. This is a separate vulnerability from bluesnarfing and does not affect all of the same phones as bluesnarfing.

    What is bluesnarfing?

    Bluesnarfing allows hackers to gain access to data stored on a Bluetooth enabled phone using Bluetooth wireless technology without alerting the phone’s user of the connection made to the device. The information that can be accessed in this manner includes the phonebook and associated images, calendar, and IMEI (international mobile equipment identity). By setting the device in non-discoverable, it becomes significantly more difficult to find and attack the device. Without specialized equipment the hacker must be within a 10 meter range of the device while running a device with specialized software. Only specific older Bluetooth enabled phones are susceptible to bluesnarfing.

    What are phone manufacturers doing to address the situation?

    Both Nokia and Sony Ericsson have developed software upgrades for phones vulnerable to bluesnarfing and bluebugging. Both companies have also worked hard to make sure new phones coming to market will not be susceptible to these attacks. For more information on how users can obtain applicable software upgrades for their phones, visit the websites of Sony Ericsson and Nokia.

    What is Car Whisperer?

    The car whisperer is a software tool developed by security researchers to connect to and send or receive audio to and from Bluetooth car-kits with a specific implementation. An individual using the tool could potentially remotely connect to and communicate with a car from an unauthorized remote device, sending audio to the speakers and receiving audio from the microphone in the remote device. Without specialized equipment, someone using the tool must be within a 10 meter range of the targeted car while running a laptop with the car whisperer tool. The security researchers’ goal was to highlight an implementation weakness in a select number of Bluetooth enabled car-kits and pressure manufacturers to better secure Bluetooth enabled devices.

    How can I tell if my car kit or car is vulnerable to the car whisperer?

    To be accessed by the car whisperer tool, the car-kit needs to be continuously in pairing mode, have a standard fixed four digit PIN code and not be connected to a phone. If a user consistently has a phone paired with the car kit, an unauthorized device cannot connect to the car kit. Concerned individuals, whose car kits are continuously in pairing mode and have a standard fixed four digit PIN code (i.e. 0000 or 1234), should contact the manufacturer directly for more information on the vulnerability of their devices and to obtain applicable software upgrades for their car-kits.

    Is Bluetooth wireless technology susceptible to hackers in other ways?

    Currently, the attacks listed on this page are the only known possibilities for hacking into a limited amount of products on the market, if appropriate measures are taken such as having security turned on and using reasonably long PIN codes or pairing devices in private. The Bluetooth SIG continues to study security risks associated with the technology and determine their viability as the technology spreads and develops.

    What can consumers do to protect their data?

    Consumers can do a number of things to protect their data. If users have a phone that is vulnerable to bluesnarfing or bluebugging, they should contact the phone's manufacturer or take the phone to a manufacturer authorized service point. The manufacturers of the vulnerable devices have developed software patches to fix the vulnerability. In addition, if users are still concerned about a device being targeted, they can turn the device to non-discoverable mode when not using Bluetooth wireless technology and in unknown areas. Users can also ensure their data is secure by not "pairing" with unknown devices. If a user were to receive an invitation to pair with another device, and asked to put in a PIN code, but was unsure of what device was inviting to pair, the user should not pair. Only pair with known devices.

    What is the cabir worm? Which devices does the cabir worm affect?

    The cabir worm is malicious software, also known as malware. When installed on a phone, it uses Bluetooth technology to send itself to other similarly vulnerable devices. Due to this self-replicating behavior, it is classified as a worm. The cabir worm currently only affects mobile phones that use the Symbian series 60 user interface platform and feature Bluetooth wireless technology. Furthermore, the user has to manually accept the worm and install the malware in order to infect the phone. More information on the cabir worm is available from the software licensing company Symbian and on the websites of F-Secure, McAfee and Symantec.

    How does a PIN affect security?

    The personal identification number (PIN) is a four or more digit alphanumeric code that is temporarily associated with one's products for the purposes of a one time secure pairing. It is recommended that users employ at minimum an eight character or more alphanumeric PIN when possible. Product owners must share that PIN number only with trusted individuals and trusted products for pairing. Without this PIN number, pairing cannot occur. It is always advisable to pair products in areas with relative privacy. Avoid pairing your Bluetooth enabled devices in public. If, for some reason, your devices become unpaired, wait until you are in a secure, private location before repairing your devices.

    Do I need to remember my PIN?

    No. It is not necessary to remember your PIN except in the seldom situation when the PIN is a fixed PIN - in which case simply retaining the user manual, with given PIN, for future reference is advisable.

    Why does pairing in a public location potentially introduce a security risk?

    Theoretically a hacker can monitor and record activities in the frequency spectrum and then use a computer to regenerate the PIN codes being exchanged. This requires specially built hardware and thorough knowledge of Bluetooth systems. By using a PIN code with eight or more alphanumeric characters it would take the hacker years to discover the PIN. By using a four digit numeric PIN code, the hacker could discover the PIN in a matter of a few hours. Still advanced software is required.

    Is this a real risk to Bluetooth enabled devices?

    Bluetooth devices generate a secure connection by means of the initial pairing process. During this process one or both devices need a PIN code to be entered, which is used by internal algorithms to generate a secure key, which is then used to authenticate the devices whenever they connect in the future.
    A new academic paper puts forward a theoretical process that could potentially "guess" the security settings on a pair of Bluetooth devices. To do this the attacking device would need to listen in to the initial one-time pairing process. From this point it can use an algorithm to guess the security key and masquerade as the other Bluetooth device. What is new in this paper is an approach that forces a new pairing sequence to be conducted between the two devices and an improved method of performing the guessing process, which brings the time down significantly from previous attacks.
    To perform this hack, it is necessary for the attacker to overhear the initial pairing process, which normally only happens once in a private environment and takes a fraction of a second. The authors have put forward some possible methods to try and force a deletion of the security key in one of the two Bluetooth devices, and hence initiate a new pairing process, which they could then listen in to. To do this, they need to masquerade as the second device during a connection. The equipment needed for this process is very expensive and usually used by developers only. If this process succeeds the user will see a message on their device that asks them to re-enter a PIN code. If they do this while the attacker is present, and the PIN code they enter is sufficiently short, then the attack could theoretically succeed.
    If the PIN key that has been used consists of only four numeric characters, a fast PC can calculate the security key in less than one tenth of a second. As the PIN key gets longer, the time to crack the security code gets longer and longer. At eight alphanumeric characters it could take over one hundred years to calculate the PIN making this crack nearly impossible.
    This is an academic analysis of Bluetooth security. What this analysis outlines is possible, but it is highly unlikely for a normal user to ever encounter such an attack. The attack also relies on a degree of user gullibility, so understanding the Bluetooth pairing process is an important defense.

    Can the SIG guarantee me that all of my future Bluetooth products will be secure?

    Absolute security can never be totally guaranteed - in technology or otherwise. Security is an ongoing and important effort for any technology. The Bluetooth SIG has made security a high priority from day one with security algorithms that to date have proven adequate. In the roadmap for the advancement of Bluetooth wireless technology, the Bluetooth SIG published security and privacy enhancements. These enhancements to the specification further strengthen the pairing process and ensure privacy after a connection is established. We are continuing with our work in this area, trying to always stay a step ahead of people trying to hack into devices.

    What is denial of service (DoS)?

    The well known denial of service (DoS) attack, which has been most popular for attacking internet web sites and networks, is now an option for hackers of Bluetooth wireless technology enabled devices. This nuisance is neither original nor ingenious and is, very simply, a constant request for response from a hacker’s Bluetooth enabled computer (with specific software) to another Bluetooth enabled device such that it causes some temporary battery degradation in the receiving device. While occupying the Bluetooth link with invalid communication requests, the hacker can temporarily disable the product’s Bluetooth services.

    Can a hacker get access to my devices data or content with DoS?

    The DoS attack only offers the hacker the satisfaction of temporary annoyance, but does not allow for access to the device’s data or services – no information residing on the receiving device can be used or stolen by the attacker.

    What devices are vulnerable to attacks, and what is the Bluetooth SIG doing about it?

    DoS attacks can be performed on any discoverable Bluetooth enabled device but in some cases, advanced hackers can determine the address of a non-discoverable Bluetooth device. The Bluetooth SIG takes all security issues seriously, and we constantly work to make the specification more secure. Therefore, future Bluetooth core specifications are planned to include features that will make it impossible to penetrate non-discoverable devices. There are also ways for manufacturers to reduce the risk of DoS attacks at the implementation level of Bluetooth wireless technology.

    What is the risk of being on the receiving end of a DoS attack?

    To date, DoS attacks on Bluetooth devices have only been conducted in laboratory tests. The risk of an attempted DoS attack should be considered minimal given the requirements and the normally short range of Bluetooth wireless technology.


    Glossary

    Ad Hoc Network
    A network typically created in a spontaneous manner. An ad hoc network requires no formal infrastructure and is limited in temporal and spatial extent.
    Active Slave Broadcast (ASB)
    The ASB logical transport is used to transport L2CAP user traffic to all active devices in the piconet.
    Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP)
    The A2DP profile describes how stereo quality audio can be streamed from a media source to a sink. The profile defines two roles of an audio source and sink. A typical usage scenario can be considered as the “walkman” class of media player. The audio source would be the music player and the audio sink is the wireless headset. A2DP defines the protocols and procedures that realize distribution of audio content of high-quality in mono or stereo on ACL channels.
    Audio/Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP)
    AVRCP is designed to provide a standard interface to control TVs, Hi-fi equipment, etc. This profile is used to allow a single remote control (or other device) to control all the A/V equipment that a user has access to. AVRCP defines how to control characteristics of streaming media. This includes pausing, stopping, and starting playback and volume control as well as other types of remote control operations.
    Beacon Train
    A pattern of reserved slots within a basic or adapted piconet physical channel. Transmissions starting in these slots are used to resynchronize parked devices.
    Basic Imaging Profile (BIP)
    BIP defines how an imaging device can be remotely controlled, how an imaging device may print, as well as how an imaging device can transfer images to a storage device. A typical scenario involves a mobile phone being used to control the shutter operation of a digital camera.
    Basic Printing Profile (BPP)
    BPP allows devices to send text, e-mails, vCards, images or other items to printers based on print jobs. It differs from HCRP in that it needs no printer-specific drivers. This makes it more suitable for embedded devices such as mobile phones and digital cameras, which cannot easily be updated with drivers dependent upon printer vendors.
    Bluetooth wireless technology
    Bluetooth wireless technology is a wireless communication link, operating in the unlicensed ISM band at 2.4 GHz using a frequency hopping transceiver. It allows real-time AV and data communications between Bluetooth enabled hosts. The link protocol is based on time slots.
    Bluetooth Baseband
    The part of the Bluetooth system that specifies or implements the medium access and physical layer procedures to support the exchange of real-time voice, data information streams, and ad hoc networking between Bluetooth enabled devices.
    Bluetooth Clock
    A 28 bit clock internal to a Bluetooth controller sub-system that ticks every 312.5 ms. The value of this clock defines the slot numbering and timing in the various physical channels.
    Bluetooth Controller
    A sub-system containing the Bluetooth RF, baseband, resource controller, link manager, device manager and a Bluetooth HCI.
    Bluetooth Enabled Device
    A Bluetooth enabled device is a device that is capable of short-range wireless communications using the Bluetooth system.
    Bluetooth Device Address
    A 48 bit address used to identify each Bluetooth enabled device. Often this is referred to in technical specifications as BD_ADDR.
    BD_ADDR
    The Bluetooth device address, BD_ADDR, is used to identify a Bluetooth enabled device.
    Bluetooth HCI
    The Bluetooth HCI provides a command interface to the baseband controller and link manager and access to hardware status and control registers. This interface provides a uniform method of accessing the Bluetooth baseband capabilities.
    Bluetooth Host
    A Bluetooth Host is a computing device, peripheral, cellular telephone, access point to PSTN network or LAN, etc. A Bluetooth Host attached to a Bluetooth Controller may communicate with other Bluetooth Hosts attached to their Bluetooth Controllers as well.
    Bluetooth Profiles
    Bluetooth profiles are general behaviors through which Bluetooth enabled devices communicate with other devices. Bluetooth technology defines a wide range of profiles that describe many different types of use cases. In order to use Bluetooth technology, a device must be able to interpret certain Bluetooth profiles. The profiles define the possible applications.
    Channel
    Either a physical channel or an L2CAP channel, depending on the context.
    Connect (to service)
    The establishment of a connection to a service. If not already done, this also includes establishment of a physical link, logical transport, logical link and L2CAP channel.
    Connectable device
    A Bluetooth enabled device in range that periodically listens on its page scan physical channel and will respond to a page on that channel.
    Connecting
    A phase in the communication between devices when a connection between them is being established. (Connecting phase follows after the link establishment phase is completed.)
    Connection
    A connection between two peer applications or higher layer protocols mapped onto an L2CAP channel.
    Connection Establishment
    A procedure for creating a connection mapped onto a channel.
    Cordless Telephony Profile (CTP)
    The CTP defines how a cordless phone can be implemented over a Bluetooth wireless link. This profile can be used for either a dedicated cordless phone or a mobile phone that acts as a cordless phone when in proximity to a base station implementing the CTP. It is anticipated that mobile phones could use a Bluetooth CTP gateway connected to a landline when within the home, and the mobile phone network when out of range.
    Coverage Area
    The area where two Bluetooth enabled devices can exchange messages with acceptable quality and performance.
    Creation of a Secure Connection
    A procedure of establishing a connection, including authentication and encryption.
    Creation of a Trusted Relationship
    A procedure where the remote device is marked as a trusted device. This includes storing a common link key for future authentication and pairing (if the link key is not available).
    Device Discovery
    A procedure for retrieving the Bluetooth device address, clock, class-of-device field and used page scan mode from discoverable devices.
    Dial-up Networking Profile (DUN)
    DUN provides a standard to access the Internet and other dial-up services over Bluetooth wireless technology. The most common scenario is accessing the Internet from a laptop by dialing up on a mobile phone, wirelessly.
    Discoverable Device
    A Bluetooth enabled device in range that periodically listens on an inquiry scan physical channel and will respond to an inquiry on that channel. Discoverable device are normally also connectable.
    Encryption
    Method of encoding data to prevent others from being able to interpret the information.
    Extended Service Discovery Profile (ESDP)
    ESDP defines how universal plug and play runs over a Bluetooth wireless connection.
    Fax Profile (FAX)
    The FAX profile defines how a FAX gateway device can be used by a terminal device. FAX is intended to provide a well-defined interface between a mobile phone or fixed-line phone and a PC with FAX software installed. A typical configuration is a personal computer using a mobile phone as a FAX gateway to send a FAX transmission to an arbitrary recipient.
    File Transfer Profile (FTP)
    FTP defines how folders and files on a server device can be browsed by a client device. Once a file or location is found by the client, a file can be pulled from the server to the client, or pushed from the client to the server using GOEP.
    General Audio/Video Distribution Profile (GAVDP)
    GAVDP provides the basis for A2DP and VDP, the basis of the systems designed for distributing video and audio streams using Bluetooth wireless technology. In a typical usage scenario, a device such as a “walkman” is used as the initiator and a headset is used as the acceptor.
    Generic Access Profile (GAP)
    GAP provides the basis for all other profiles and defines a consistent means to establish a baseband link between Bluetooth enabled devices. The profile defines operations that are generic and can be used by profiles referring to GAP and by devices implementing multiple profiles. GAP ensures that any two Bluetooth enabled devices, regardless of manufacturer and application, can exchange information via Bluetooth in order to discover what type of applications the devices support. Bluetooth enabled devices not conforming to any other Bluetooth profile must conform to GAP to ensure basic interoperability and co-existence.
    Generic Object Exchange Profile (GOEP)
    GOEP is used to transfer an object from one device to another. The object may be any object such as a picture, document, business card, etc. The profile defines two roles, a server that provides the location form which an object is pulled or pushed, as well as a client that initiates the action. GOEP provides a generic blueprint for other profiles using the OBEX protocol .
    Hands-Free Profile (HFP)
    HFP describes how a gateway device can be used to place and receive calls for a hand-free device. A typical configuration is an automobile using a mobile phone for a gateway device. In the car, the stereo is used for the phone audio and a microphone is installed in the car for sending outgoing audio of the conversation. HFP is also used for a personal computer to act as a speakerphone for a mobile phone in a home or office environment.
    Hard Copy Cable Replacement Profile (HCRP)
    HCRP defines how driver-based printing is accomplished over a Bluetooth wireless link. The profile defines a client and a server role. The client is a device containing a print driver for the server on which the client wishes to print. A common configuration is a client personal computer printing using a driver to a printer acting as a server. This provides a simple wireless alternative to a cable connection between a device and a printer. HCRP does not set a standard regarding the actual communications to the printer, so drivers are required specific to the printer model or range.
    Headset Profile (HSP)
    The HSP describes how a Bluetooth enabled headset should communicate with a computer or other Bluetooth enabled device such as a mobile phone. When connected and configured, the headset can act as the remote device’s audio input and output interface.
    Human Interface Device Profile (HID)
    The HID profile defines the protocols, procedures and features to be used by Bluetooth enabled HID, such as keyboards, pointing devices, gaming devices, and remote monitoring devices.
    Inquiring Device
    A Bluetooth enabled device that is carrying out the inquiry procedure.
    Inquiry
    A procedure where a Bluetooth device transmits inquiry messages and listens for responses in order to discover the other Bluetooth enabled devices within the coverage area.
    Inquiry Scan
    A procedure where a Bluetooth enabled device listens for inquiry messages received on its inquiry scan physical channel.
    Intercom Profile (ICP)
    Just as your voice can go unheard by others due to other noises, so too can Bluetooth radios go unheard due to other radio interference. This issue is especially a concern as Bluetooth wireless technology uses an unlicensed band for transmissions. Fortunately the technology was designed explicitly to be both a good citizen in these frequencies by not producing unnecessary noise but also to be able to avoid other radio waves. Some common radio technologies which can affect Bluetooth wireless products include microwave ovens and some models of cordless phones.
    Interference
    Information in a stream where each information entity in the stream is bound by a time relationship to previous and successive entities.
    Isochronous Data
    Information in a stream where each information entity in the stream is bound by a time relationship to previous and successive entities.
    Known Device
    A Bluetooth enabled device for which at least the BD_ADDR is stored.
    L2CAP Channel
    A procedure for establishing a logical connection on L2CAP level.
    L2CAP Channel Establishment
    A procedure for establishing a logical connection on L2CAP level.
    Link Establishment
    A procedure for establishing the default ACL link and hierarchy of links and channels between devices.
    Link
    Shorthand for a logical link.
    Link Key
    A secret key that is known by two devices and is used in order to authenticate each device to the other
    LMP Authentication
    An LMP level procedure for verifying the identity of a remote device.
    LMP Pairing
    A procedure that authenticates two devices and creates a common link key that can be used as a basis for a trusted relationship or a (single) secure connection.
    Logical Channel
    Identical to an L2CAP channel, but deprecated due to an alternative meaning in Bluetooth Version 1.1
    Logical link
    The lowest architectural level used to offer independent data transport services to clients of the Bluetooth system.
    Logical Transport
    Used in Bluetooth wireless technology to represent commonality between different logical links due to shared acknowledgement protocol and link identifiers.
    Name Discovery
    A procedure for retrieving the user-friendly name (the Bluetooth enabled device name) of a connectable device.
    Object Exchange (OBEX) Protocol
    OBEX is a transfer protocol that defines data objects and a communication protocol two devices can use to exchange those objects. OBEX enables applications to work over the Bluetooth protocol stack as well as the IrDA stack. For Bluetooth enabled devices, only connection-oriented OBEX is supported. Three application profiles have been developed using OBEX which include SYNC, FTP and OPP.
    Packet
    Format of aggregated bits that are transmitted on a physical channel.
    Page
    The initial phase of the connection procedure where a device transmits a train of page messages until a response is received from the target device or a timeout occurs.
    Page Scan
    A procedure where a device listens for page messages received on its page scan physical channel.
    Paging Device
    A Bluetooth enabled device that is carrying out the page procedure.
    Paired Device
    A Bluetooth enabled device with which a link key has been exchanged (either before connection establishment was requested or during connecting phase).
    Pairing
    The process of establishing a new relationship between two Bluetooth enabled devices. During this process a link key is exchanged (either before connection establishment was requested or during connecting phase).
    Parked Device
    A device operating in a basic mode piconet that is synchronized to the master but has given up its default ACL logical transport.
    Passcode
    When pairing devices, it is strongly recommended to use a passcode to authenticate incoming connections. Also, in certain connection situations you may desire additional assurance that you are connecting to the device or person you expect. A passcode can normally be any combination of keys (letters or numbers). Do use caution as some devices do not map characters similarly. Passkeys are valid only for the connection and may be different for other devices or users.
    Personal Area Networking Profile (PAN)
    PAN describes how two or more Bluetooth enabled devices can form an ad-hoc network and how the same mechanism can be used to access a remote network through a network access point. The profile roles include the network access point, group ad-hoc network and personal area network user.
    Physical Channel
    Characterized by synchronized occupancy of a sequence of RF carriers by one or more devices. A number of physical channel types exist with characteristics defined for their different purposes.
    Physical Link
    A baseband-level connection between two devices established using paging.
    Piconet
    A collection of devices occupying a shared physical channel where one of the devices is the piconet master and the remaining devices are connected to it.
    Piconet Physical Channel
    A channel that is divided into time slots in which each slot is related to an RF hop frequency. Consecutive hops normally correspond to different RF hop frequencies and occur at a standard hop rate of 1600 hops/s. These consecutive hops follow a pseudo-random hopping sequence, hopping through a 79 RF channel set.
    Piconet Master
    The device in a piconet whose Bluetooth clock and Bluetooth device address are used to define the piconet physical channel characteristics.
    Piconet Slave
    Any device in a piconet that is not the piconet master, but is connected to the piconet master.
    PIN
    A user-friendly number that can be used to authenticate connections to a device before paring has taken place.
    Participant in Multiple Piconets (PMP)
    A device that is concurrently a member of more than one piconet, which it achieves using time division multiplexing (TDM) to interleave its activity on each piconet physical channel.
    The Parked Slave Broadcast (PSB)
    The Parked Slave Broadcast logical transport that is used for communications between the master and parked devices.
    Range
    Area that a Bluetooth enabled radio can cover with signal. This area can be affected by many different factors.
    Scatternet
    Two or more piconets that include one or more devices acting as PMPs.
    Serial Port Profile (SPP)
    SPP defines how to set-up virtual serial ports and connect two Bluetooth enabled devices.
    Service Layer Protocol
    A protocol that uses an L2CAP channel for transporting PDUs.
    Service Discovery
    Procedures for querying and browsing for services offered by or through another Bluetooth enabled device.
    Service Discovery Application Profile (SDAP)
    SDAP describes how an application should use SDP to discover services on a remote device. SDAP requires that any application be able to find out what services are available on any Bluetooth enabled device it connects to.
    Silent Device
    A Bluetooth enabled device appears as silent to a remote device if it does not respond to inquiries made by the remote device.
    SIM Access Profile (SAP)
    SAP allows devices such as car phones with built in GSM transceivers to connect to a SIM card in a Bluetooth enabled phone. Therefore the car phone itself does not require a separate SIM card.
    Synchronization Profile (SYNC)
    The SYNC profile is used in conjunction with GOEP to enable synchronization of calendar and address information (personal information manager (PIM) items) between Bluetooth enabled devices. A common application of this profile is the exchange of data between a PDA and computer.
    Unknown device
    A Bluetooth enabled device for which no information (Bluetooth device address, link key or other) is stored.
    Video Distribution Profile (VDP)
    VDP defines how a Bluetooth enabled device streams video over Bluetooth wireless technology. Sample use cases include the streaming of a stored video from a PC media centre to a portable player or streaming from a digital video camera to a TV.
    WAP Over Bluetooth Profile (WAP)
    WAP defines how the wireless application protocol suite can run over a Bluetooth wireless link. A typical configuration is a mobile phone connecting to a public kiosk over a Bluetooth wireless link and using WAP to browse for information. WAP works across a variety of WAN technologies bringing the Internet to mobile devices.
    And:

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    Nice day
    Last edited by jasmin; 02-21-2008 at 03:53 PM.

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    Member ricky_messi's Avatar
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    Great Review mate

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    Thumbs up

    I've known what Digital networks meant, but this is explained perfectly

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    Post what mobile to buy? what is my need?

    Last edited by ts013; 02-13-2008 at 02:22 PM. Reason: Do NOT copy-paste articles from other websites!!!

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    Member bruno-1-'s Avatar
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    That Is Wikeedm Everything A Man Was To KnowFor A Phone! :)

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    Top Platinum jasmin's Avatar
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    :D

    It`s true.

    Nice day

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    Member pauleece's Avatar
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    how many courses did you take to fully comprehend this mess
    i salute you

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    Re: Mobile Technology Definitions

    Perfect explained.

    Nice day

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    Plus 50 snk951's Avatar
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    Re: Mobile Technology Definitions

    super, its like a mobile library.

    good stuff. hope great things like will follow for many years to come. all things explained to the last detail

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    Re: Mobile Technology Definitions

    I like your way to explain
    asthe guy say mobile lybrary

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